Developing K-Workers’ Competencies Framework for Undergraduate University Students

  • Teguh Iman Santoso Universiti Tun Hussein Onn
  • & Razali Hassan Universiti Tun Husein Onn
Keywords: K-workers, competency framework, spiritual intelligence, structural equation modelling


TVET graduates require appropriate competencies to be successful in the field of industrial work. Existing literature indicate that there are several models that can be used as principles in creating graduates competency model. The objective of this study is to propose a well-adjusted graduate competency models in the field of industrial work. There are some problems to be discussed in this study, namely (1) How is the gap between students competency and industrial needs? (2) What are the main dimensions of student competence? (3) What are competency elements in the 'k-worker' dimension? (4) How does one design a 'k-worker' framework? This research applied qualitative methods supported by quantitative data. This study on framework design is an exploratory study using the Modified Delphi technique from experts in the field of electrical / electronic to obtain qualitative data; supported by data from questionnaire distributed to students in four universities in Batam. The analyses were conducted through demographic analysis, descriptive analysis; qualitative data analysis from interview and document review as well as SEM. SEM analysis shows a K-Workers Model that is well-adjusted to expert and student perceptions. The study shows that there is a huge gap between students’ attributes and industrial needs; students’ competency levels are not meeting industry needs which are caused by multiple factors. In addition, the study plan shows that the competence dimensions and elements are needed by students. A competency model was subsequently developed for "k-workers" using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) based on the quantitative data obtained from engineering students from four universities in Batam. The findings have significance in terms of theory, practice, and policy formation and can contribute to practices in education and training institutions, industry and employment empowerment agencies as well as testing and certification bodies.


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Santoso, T. I., & Hassan, & R. (2018). Developing K-Workers’ Competencies Framework for Undergraduate University Students. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 10(2). Retrieved from