Career Decision-Making Competence, Self-Knowledge, and Occupational Exploration: A Model for University Students


  • Norida Abdullah Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka
  • Noraini Hussin Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka
  • Olurotimi Adebayo Shonubi Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka
  • Siti Raudzah Ghazali Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
  • & Mansor Abu Talib Universiti Putra Malaysia


Career decision-making, self-knowledge, occupational exploration, graduating university students


University graduates are often lacking in soft-skills and job-seeking skill which affect their career decision-making skills. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the factors that might potentially drive the career decision-making of graduates. Specifically, this study aims at developing a career decision-making competency model for effective career decision among graduating students. The sample for this research consisted of 1655 graduating students from universities in Malaysia. Participants were recruited using the cluster sampling method. Four instruments were used in this research namely, demographic information sheet, Self-Esteem scale, Job-search scale and Career decision-making scale. The instruments used were tested for their validity and reliability. Confirmatory Factor Analysis AMOS was used to obtain the best-fit measurement models from the variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings show that there are significant relationships between self-knowledge (SK) and career decision-making (CDM), and occupational exploration (OE) and career decision-making (CDM). The result for testing invariance of a structural model for multi-group analysis showed a validation model of self-knowledge (SK), occupational exploration (OE) and career decision making (CDM). Based on this finding, it is imperative for graduating university students to enhance their self-knowledge, occupational exploration, and self-confidence in order to portray a positive attitude that will lead to work-related engagement.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Norida Abdullah, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

for Languages and Human Development, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

Noraini Hussin, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

Centre for Language and Human Development

Olurotimi Adebayo Shonubi, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

Institute of Technology management and Entrepreneurship

Siti Raudzah Ghazali, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak

Student Development Centre

& Mansor Abu Talib, Universiti Putra Malaysia

University Community Transformation Centre




How to Cite

Abdullah, N., Hussin, N., Shonubi, O. A., Ghazali, S. R., & Talib, & M. A. (2018). Career Decision-Making Competence, Self-Knowledge, and Occupational Exploration: A Model for University Students. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 10(1). Retrieved from