Demand-supply Mismatch in TVET Academic Programmes: What Is It and What Should It Be?


  • Aziyati Ibrahim Sultan Idris Education UniversitySultan Idris Education University, Tanjung Malim Perak
  • Irdayanti Mat Nashir Sultan Idris Education University


supply and demands, TVET, TVET program, needs analysis


Over the years, public and private higher education institutions in Malaysia have consistently produced many graduates. However, the employment rate among local fresh graduates remains low. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the demand-supply mismatch of the programmes offered by Malaysian Polytechnic Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) based on the perspectives of the employers, top management, lecturers, and students. This study adopted a semi-structured interview as the data collection method and utilised a purposive sampling method in approaching the respondents. This study conducted a thematic analysis using the ATLAS.ti 9 software. The findings of this study relating to the demand-supply mismatch can be classified into three, which are: i) the mismatch between industry demand and TVET programme supply; ii) the mismatch between student demand and TVET programme supply; and iii) the mismatch between institution readiness and TVET programme supply. Following these findings, this study proposed a realignment of the TVET programme by taking into consideration all stakeholders’ necessities. As a result, the demand-supply will be balanced, thus increasing the employability of the local graduates. It is beneficial for future research to employ an appropriate framework of alignment when examining TVET academic programmes, taking into account the needs of all stakeholders to guarantee that TVET programmes remain relevant.


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How to Cite

Ibrahim, A., & Mat Nashir, I. (2022). Demand-supply Mismatch in TVET Academic Programmes: What Is It and What Should It Be?. Journal of Technical Education and Training, 14(2), 177–189. Retrieved from

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