Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Propolis Extract from Stingless Bee in Malaysia
Propolis is a resinous natural product by honeybees, rich in biologically active compound. Biochemical composition and activities of propolis critically depend on the geographical region and plant source. Therefore, the research was conducted to extract and characterize “propolis” from Malaysian stingless bee. Based on these observations, aims of the research were to extract the components in propolis, analyze the components and functional groups, and evaluate the anti-oxidant and antibacterial activity of propolis. Propolis was extracted using ethanol as solvent. The yield has sweet balsamic aroma and gold in color. The ethanolic extraction of propolis was analyzed using FTIR. The results of FTIR shows that propolis saturated with various phenolics, flavanols and aromatic compounds. Anti-bacterial test was carried out using agar well diffusion method against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterika, and Bacillus cereus. Propolis extract showed highest inhibition towards S. aureus and followed by E. coli, B. subtilis, and S. enterika in decreasing order. Anti-bacterial test results show that Malaysian stingless bee propolis can be a very good substitute for Amoxicillin antibiotic. Finally, the anti-oxidant test was conducted using DPPH free radical method, where propolis exhibited an anti-oxidant property. The anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial test results were correlated with compounds found using FTIR. SEM micrograph shows that raw propolis has rugged surfaces covered by layers of wax, extractives, vegetal constituents, resinous substances from plants. All the objectives are achieved with most of results coincidentally favors to the local stingless bee propolis. Anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial activity and compounds found in propolis are highly recommended for further application in food or other industries.