Adaptive Cardinal Heading Aided for Low Cost Foot-Mounted Inertial Pedestrian Navigation


  • Khairi Abdulrahim Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Terry Moore University of Nottingham, United Kingdom


Foot-mounted, pedestrian navigation, MEMS, zero velocity update


The use of a low-cost MEMS-based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) provides a cost-effective approach for navigation purposes. Foot-mounted IMU is a popular option for indoor inertial pedestrian navigation, as a small and light MEMS-based inertial sensor can be tied to a pedestrian's foot or shoe. Without relying on GNSS or other external sensors to enhance navigation, the foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system can autonomously navigate, relying solely on the IMU. This is typically performed with the standard strapdown navigation algorithm in a Kalman filter, where Zero Velocity Updates (ZVU) are used together to restrict the error growth of the low-cost inertial sensors. ZVU is applied every time the user takes a step since there exists a zero velocity condition during stance phase. While velocity and correlated attitude errors can be estimated correctly using ZVUs, heading error is not because it is unobservable. In this paper, we extend our previous work to correct the heading error by aiding it using Multiple Polygon Areas (MPA) with adaptive weighting factor. We termed the approach as Adaptive Cardinal Heading Aided Inertial Navigation (A-CHAIN). We formulated an adaptive weighting factor applied to measurement noise to enhance measurement confidence. We then incorporated MPA heading into the algorithm, whereas multiple buildings with the same orientation are grouped together and assigned a specific heading information as a priori. Results shown that against the original CHAIN, the proposed Adaptive-CHAIN improved the position accuracy by more than five-fold.


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How to Cite

Abdulrahim, K., & Moore, T. (2021). Adaptive Cardinal Heading Aided for Low Cost Foot-Mounted Inertial Pedestrian Navigation. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 13(4), 29–39. Retrieved from




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