Automatic Urban Road Users' Tracking System


  • Ma'moun Al-Smadi PHD Candidate
  • Khairi Abdulrahim ‎Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia ‎
  • Kamaruzzaman Seman Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia
  • Rosalina Abdul Salam Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia


Motion detection, dynamic gradient pattern, object tracking, kalman filtering


This paper presents a Dynamic Gradient Pattern (DGP) based on Kalman filtering technique for urban road users tracking.  DGP technique is proposed to enhance rigid object descriptive ability for improved verification. DGP descriptor along with weighted centroid was integrated with a Kalman filtering framework to enhance data association robustness and tracking accuracy. To handle multiple objects tracking, a DGP verification approach is addressed based on normalized Bhattacharyya distance. The proposed technique achieves a closer trajectory for rigid body movement. The DGP descriptor can discriminate the objects correctly, and it overcomes the partial occlusion and misdetection by verifying object location using the normalized Bhattacharyya distance between DGP features. Experimental evaluation is performed on urban videos that include a slow-motion temporary stop and partial occlusion.  The experimental results demonstrate that the detecting and tracking accuracy are above 98.08% and 97.70% respectively.


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Author Biographies

Khairi Abdulrahim, ‎Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia ‎

Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

Kamaruzzaman Seman, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

‎Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

Rosalina Abdul Salam, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

Faculty of Science and Technology





How to Cite

Al-Smadi, M., Abdulrahim, K., Seman, K. ., & Abdul Salam, R. . (2021). Automatic Urban Road Users’ Tracking System. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 13(1), 159–167. Retrieved from