The Journal of Science and Technology is a biannual referred journal which publishes original research papers in all areas of science and technology. Research areas include traditional subjects such as Physics, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry and Computer Science. Papers relating directly or indirectly to all aspects of these fields are welcome. The journal is intended to provide a forum for the expression of new ideas, as well as a place for exposition of these areas of knowledge. We would like to thank the authors for submitting their papers to this journal. We are grateful to the referees for their work in ensuring the high quality of the submissions. Finally, we would like to thank the UTHM Publisher’s staff for their help to make thi issue possible.
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