A Systematic Literature Review on the Effect of Seawater as A Promising Material on the Physical and Mechanical Performance of Concrete
Concrete is made from freshwater, cement, and aggregate and the only material shared with mankind, flora, and fauna is freshwater. One of the most concerning problems the world has been facing over the last few decades is the rising demand for freshwater due to the increasing global population and depleting source of freshwater by 2050. In Malaysia, the population is expected to rise from 32 million people in 2020 to 40.50 million people in 2050, which would correspondingly increase the demand for domestic houses, industrial areas, and other building construction as well as increase the overall usage of freshwater. The utilisation of seawater has been applied in constructing buildings and infrastructures since the time of the Roman Empire and the structures still survive for more than 2000 years against chemical attacks and underwater wave force. Given that seawater is considered an alternative mixing agent in concrete production, research on seawater-based concrete has continued to gain interest from the scientific community and undergone swift development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present a systematic literature review on the recent development of concrete with seawater as the mixing agent and its effect on the physical and mechanical performance of the concrete. A four-stage investigation criterion was conducted for the data collection from the Scopus database, which includes the search parameter, identification, screening, and writing. The screening of the literature retrieved 53 articles, which were then classified based on the physical and mechanical properties of the concrete. Based on the review, the use of seawater as a single mixing agent reduced the physical and mechanical performance of the concrete. However, the incorporation of seawater with special chemical admixture, mineral admixture, and reinforcement with certain treatment resulted in a higher performance of the concrete. Finally, the review highlighted the various potential studies that can be performed to investigate the utilisation of seawater in the construction industry while achieving a sustainable solution to preserve the environment.
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