A Review on Usability and User Experience of Assistive Social Robots for Older Persons


  • Isa Halim Research Group of Human Machine System Optimization, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5457-8233
  • Adi Saptari
  • Puvanasvaran A. Perumal
  • Zulkeflee Abdullah
  • Shariman Abdullah
  • Mohd Nazrin Muhammad


Socially assistive robots, companion robots, elderly care, usability, user experience


In the advancement of human-robot interaction technology, assistive social robots have been recognized as one of potential technologies that can provide physical and cognitive supports in older persons care. However, a major challenge faced by the designers is to develop an assistive social robot with prodigious usability and user experience for older persons who were known to have physical and cognitive limitations. A considerable number of published literatures was reporting on the technological design process of assistive social robots. However, only a small amount of attention has been paid to review the usability and user experience of the robots. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of established researches in the literatures concerning usability and user experience issues faced by the older persons when interacting with assistive social robots. The authors searched relevant articles from the academic databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science as well as Google search for the publication period 2000 to 2021. Several search keywords were typed such as ‘older persons’ ‘elderly’, ‘senior citizens’, ‘assistive social robots’, ‘companion robots’, ‘personal robots’, ‘usability’ and ‘user experience’. This online search found a total of 215 articles which are related to assistive social robots in elderly care. Out of which, 54 articles identified as significant references, and they were examined thoroughly to prepare the main content of this paper. This paper reveals usability issues of 28 assistive social robots, and feedbacks of user experience based on 41 units of assistive social robots. Based on the research articles scrutinized, the authors concluded that the key elements in the design and development of assistive social robots to improve acceptance of older persons were determined by three factors: functionality, usability and users’ experience. Functionality refers to ability of robots to serve the older persons. Usability is ease of use of the robots. It is an indicator on how successful of interaction between the robots and the users. To improve usability, robot designers should consider the limitations of older persons such as vision, hearing, and cognition capabilities when interacting with the robots. User experience reflects to perceptions, preferences and behaviors of users that occur before, during and after use the robots. Combination of superior functionality and usability lead to a good user experience in using the robots which in the end achieves satisfaction of older persons.


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How to Cite

Halim, I., Saptari, A. ., A. Perumal, P. ., Zulkeflee Abdullah, Shariman Abdullah, & Mohd Nazrin Muhammad. (2022). A Review on Usability and User Experience of Assistive Social Robots for Older Persons. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 14(6), 102–124. Retrieved from https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/ijie/article/view/8566




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