An Approximate Model of Load Frequency Control Systems with Time Delay


  • M. Saad Haji-Bini Universiti Teknologi Brunei
  • Yusri Yasmin Universiti Teknologi Brunei
  • Ashraf Khalil Universiti Teknologi Brunei
  • Swee Peng Ang Universiti Teknologi Brunei


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In this paper we present an approximate model for load frequency control system with time delay. The load frequency control is one of the conventional power system control problems. In order to secure the stability of the grid the frequency must remain within its limited range which is achieved through the load frequency control. The load frequency control signals experience time delay that could destabilize the power systems. The presence of the time delay complicates the analysis of the load frequency control system. In this paper we present a stability method based on the Direct Frequency Response approximation for the time delay. This approximation transforms the transcendental time delay equation into linear equation. This results in a simple stability criterion for the load frequency control system with time delay. A one-area load frequency control system is chosen as a case study. The effectiveness of the proposed approximation has been tested through simulation and comparison with the published research work. By tracking the eigenvalues or using Routh's criterion the maximum delay margin can be estimated. The proposed stability criterion has been compared with the most recent methods and showed it is merit. The range of the PI controller parameters for a given time delay can be determined which is very important in practice.


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How to Cite

Haji-Bini, M. S. ., Yasmin, Y., Khalil, A., & Ang , S. P. (2021). An Approximate Model of Load Frequency Control Systems with Time Delay. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 13(7), 40–53. Retrieved from