Real-time Simulation of Cardiac Excitation Using Hardwareimplemented Cardiac Excitation Modeling


  • Farhanahani Mahmud UTHM


Hardware-implemented cardiac excitation model, Luo-Rudy phase I model, reentrant


In this paper a hardware-implemented cardiac excitation model of a cardiac cell based on Luo-Rudy phase I (LR1) for the action potential (AP) generation in a mammalian cardiac ventricle is proposed to speed up the computational time during the simulation of the cardiac AP conduction. The hardware-implemented cardiac excitation model is designed by using analog circuits and a dsPIC microcontroller that could reproduce timedependent and time-independent nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of six-type of ionic currents in LR1 model. Through the study, real-time simulations of reentrant excitation conduction of cardiac cells are realized by coupling 30 active circuits of the cell models based on a cable model. The real-time simulations of initiation have been performed by the model and they are comparable to those from the LR1 model. Thus, it is conceivable that the hardware-implemented cardiac excitation model may be useful as one of alternative tools toward further understanding of the reentrant mechanisms.


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Author Biography

Farhanahani Mahmud, UTHM

Department of Electronic Engineering,
Faculty of Electric and Electrical Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,
86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, MALAYSIA.


How to Cite

Mahmud, F. (2012). Real-time Simulation of Cardiac Excitation Using Hardwareimplemented Cardiac Excitation Modeling. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 4(3). Retrieved from



Issue on Electrical and Electronic Engineering