Effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on Irrigation Activities Using Field and Earth Observation Data in Part of Northeastern Nigeria


  • Mohammed Ahmed Bayero University
  • Isyaku Adamu Bayero University


Boko Haram, irrigation, Landsat, Sentinel, Spectral Matching Techniques


The Boko Hara Insurgency in Nigeria has affected the socio-economic activities in most parts of the northeastern part of the country, leading to a low supply of food from agricultural output and increased poverty. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of the Boko Haram insurgency on irrigation activities in Kukuwa village. Data was sourced for interviews of 240 respondents and Landsat8_OLI for 2014 and Sentinel 2 for 2015 to 2019. The images were converted to NDVI and used to determine the spectral signatures for each crop using Spectral Matching Techniques (SMTs). The result indicated the majority of the farmers irrigated their farms as > 2 ha (69%) before the crisis, 2 ha (87%) during the crises and > 2 ha (62%) after the crisis, and the majority hired farmers for labour. The intensity of the irrigation was reduced during the crises and it increased after the crises. The result of the SMTs in 2014 indicated a high spectral signature for irrigation activities, with 227.07ha (29.6%) for tomatoes. In 2015 and 2016, low spectral signatures for crops were observed for 541.69ha (69.80%) and 519.5ha (66.94%), respectively. While the spectral result in 2017, 2018, and 2019 indicates a good appreciation of irrigation activities, which shows an increase in most of the dominant crops cultivated in the area, such as tomato, onion, watermelon, and pepper. Among the breakthroughs of this paper is the analysing the reflected signatures from the classified image for different crops through irrigation activities during and after the insurgency in the area. The accuracy assessment indicated fairly good with Landsat but very good with the sentinel images. The study suggests further research into the effect of Boko Haram insurgency for rainfed agriculture using Earth Observation Data.


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How to Cite

Ahmed, M., & Adamu, I. (2024). Effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on Irrigation Activities Using Field and Earth Observation Data in Part of Northeastern Nigeria. Journal of Techno-Social, 16(1), 36-53. https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/JTS/article/view/16208