@article{Mohd Nasir_Jumadi_Mun_2023, title={Integrated Approach for Cobb Angle Estimation in X-Ray C-Curve Scoliosis Using Image Processing and Inverse Cosine Law}, volume={4}, url={https://publisher.uthm.edu.my/ojs/index.php/jeva/article/view/14777}, abstractNote={<p>Cobb angle is the angle subtended by the most tilted vertebrae. It represents the degree of the spinal curvature and has been used to diagnose scoliosis. The severity of the scoliosis based on the cobb angle will determine the guide treatment and surgical planning. Manual measurement of Cobb angle using protractor or semi-manual using ONIS software is quite time consuming, and it is subjected to variations in interobserver and intraobserver measurements. This research proposed an algorithm to determine the Cobb angle using image processing and inverse cosine methods. The raw samples of X-ray images were obtained from Pusat Kesihatan Universiti (PKU), UTHM. &nbsp;Several interviews were conducted with radiologist at Pantai Hospital for verification purpose. Gaussian blur and unsharp mask were initially applied for noise removal in the preprocessing step. Three points were marked at the vertebrae image to assist for centroid estimation using Haar Cascade. The Cobb angle was estimated by&nbsp;applying the triangle formula derived from the inverse cosine law. In comparison to semi-manual method (Onis Software), the proposed technique has an error of less than 5 % and computes the Cobb angle 3.28 times quicker. In the future, it is suggested to explore other techniques such as deep learning for alternative data analysis for Cobb angle estimation.</p>}, number={1}, journal={ Journal of Electronic Voltage and Application}, author={Mohd Nasir , Nur Salimah and Jumadi, Nur Anida and Mun, Ng Li}, year={2023}, month={Oct.}, pages={1–9} }