Journal of Technical Education and Training <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Technical Education and Training (JTET) is a peer reviewed journal that publishes twice a year&nbsp; (June and December) on articles concerning Technical &amp; Vocational Education and Training (TVET) practices in both the formal and informal sectors. We welcome article submissions from the local and international TVET researchers and practitioners. We strongly welcome research articles and will also consider critical reviews as well as technical reports that can further our understanding of TVET issues and concerns.</p> en-US <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> (JTET Editorial Team) (Penerbit UTHM) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 11:43:02 +0800 OJS 60 INTEGRATION FACTORS OF GREEN SKILLS INTO BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TRADE PROGRAMME IN NIGERIA <p>Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) remains a vital tool for skilling young individuals both in and out of school. However, it appears that there has been a lack of research especially in the building construction sector with respect to green buildings in Nigeria. The main purpose of this research paper is to identify factors should be included in the greening of building construction trade curriculum of technical colleges in north western Nigeria with a view to improving teaching and learning green skills for sustainable development. In this study, simple random sampling was used to select 15 building construction teachers in the north western Nigerian technical colleges. Data for this study were collected using qualitative approach (that is interview). Respondents were requested to answer the interview questions based on the topic under study. The factors (data) identified from the perception of the respondents were collected and analysed by qualitative means based on their level of&nbsp; consideration with regards to improving teaching and learning green skills for sustainable development. In doing so, the data were analysed by transcription, coding, content analysis and thematic with the aid of Nvivo statistical software. Findings indicated that the three main factors that could be included in the integration of green skills into the curriculum of building construction trade include environmental, economic and social factors. Specifically, these factors were disintegrated into climate change, global warming, greenhouse gas emission, economic instability, health and safety issues related to buildings, waste and energy in buildings. This research forms the initial investigation of a more in-depth study of the green skills integration into the Nigerian education curriculum, which aims to achieving environmental, economic and social sustainability.</p> Samaila Hamza, Aede Hatib Musta'amal @ Jamal, Yusri Bin Kamin Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 02 Jan 2020 08:57:50 +0800 DEVELOPING VOCATIONAL TRAINING: LESSON LEARNT FROM BUILDING BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION THROUGH CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE AND DISTINCTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CAPABILITY <p>A vocational training can be invested based on the degree of innovation, such as on business models to face challenges in the era of Industrial Revolution 4.0. The lesson learnt can be captured through the formulation of strategy that needed to consider internal and external aspects. For example, as in the digital world, customer experience as well as customer satisfaction. Capability on the side of the network owned combined with network and social capabilities are expected to create distinctive organizational capability. Based on this background, the study aims to examine the effects of customer experience and distinctive organizational capability on the business model innovations of telecommunication firms in Indonesia using quantitative research. The target population are 445 telecommunication network companies in Indonesia which includes 312 ISP firms, 34 satellite firms, 27 tower firms, and 72 Telkom subsidiaries and affiliates, with samples taken from 34 firms. PLS is used as the analytical tool to process the data in this study. The results of the study show that customer experience and distinctive organizational capabilities have an influence to business model innovations. Customer experience has a bigger role than distinctive organizational capability in building business model innovation. These findings have practical implications for the management of telecommunications industries in Indonesia as the development of vocational training rely on the needs of business model innovation development, which directly based on the development of customer experience and supported with development of distinctive organizational capability. Further research can be explored by expanding the sample, industry and in other countries.</p> Leonardus Mihardjo, Elidjen, Firdaus Alamsjah, Sasmoko Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 13 Feb 2020 12:34:04 +0800 MODIFIED DELPHI TECHNIQUE: THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR INNOVATIVE INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS <p>This study aimed to determine the constructs and to develop measurement model of innovative instructional leadership for polytechnics system in Malaysia.&nbsp; The study used Hallinger and Murphy model as the underpinning theoretical framework. This study has utilized a model development approach as its research design.&nbsp; In the earlier stage, a Modified Delphi technique was used to gather initial data regarding innovative instructional leadership. Eleven experts were selected based on their expertise and experience.&nbsp; They confirmed 13 constructs of innovative instructional leadership for the polytechnics system.&nbsp; Stratified random sampling was used in this study to select the respondents.&nbsp; A new instrument was developed which consisted of 13 constructs and 188 items and distributed to the respondents in the selected polytechnics to determine the innovative instructional leadership of the polytechnic administrators.&nbsp; Empirical data collected were analyses using descriptive and inferential statistics that included confirmatory factor analysis.&nbsp; The results showed that lecturers at the polytechnics did not agree that their administrators possess the innovative instructional leadership particularly related to strategic thinking, innovative thinking and network management.&nbsp; In addition, the study also found that the administrators of the polytechnics have moderate level of innovative instructional leadership for most of the constructs.&nbsp; Based on confirmatory factor analysis, it was found that only 68 items out of 188 items that are important to the innovative instructional leadership in the polytechnics system in Malaysia.&nbsp; In conclusion, this research study has obtained nine importance of innovative instructional leadership in the polytechnic system in Malaysia. Importance of acquired is expected to improve the technical competence of the organization, particularly polytechnics to achieve the aspirations outlined transformation. In addition, these studies also acquire instruments for innovative instructional leadership to guide the administrator to assess the weaknesses and constraints existing in themselves. It is hoped that the results of this study could assist the top management in polytechnics to spearhead the direction and leadership of the polytechnics towards a more creative and innovative system in line with the government's desire to transform the polytechnic system to becoming a preferred choice of higher education institution.</p> Irdayanti Mat Nashir, Ramlee Mustapha, Nurul Nazirah Mohd Imam Maarof, Tang Jing Rui Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 06 Feb 2020 09:17:43 +0800 NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE APPLICATION TOWARDS THE FORMATION OF SOCIAL SKILLS AND VALUES ELEMENTS FOR APPRENTICESHIP COMPETENCY MODELS <p>Abstract is compulsory. This study discusses Nominal Group Technique as an alternative strategy for developing a list of social skills and values elements of the apprenticeship competency model. Social skills and values are some of the crucial parts of the TVET system and are to be considered as an additional incentive to the graduates. This study was conducted in the second phase (Development Stage) of researcher’s research based on expert’s consensus in identifying, accepting and ranking the social skills and values elements. The Modified Nominal Group Technique data analysis was determined based on the score given by all of the panels, of experts’ votes, which were converted into percentages and compared with the terms set. The experts’ agreement determined the final elements of social skills and social values. The voting process was aimed at determining the priorities of each of the element according to the preference of each expert that was based on individual scale interpretation. The Modified Nominal Technique group contains five stages: research briefings; idea generation; sharing and discussing ideas; voting through questionnaire; and presentation of findings. The findings of this study have identified a sum of 24 elements of social skills and values in the initial stage and finally, 20 elements of social skills and values were chosen as a component in the development of&nbsp;the model. In addition, the findings have shown that this technique has helped researchers to get the information effectively and rapidly due to the development of the model that can be obtained specifically through percentage score items tested based on experts’ consensus.</p> Norhayati Yahaya, Mohamad Sattar Rasul, Ruhizan Mohamad Yasin, Mohamad Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 19 Jan 2020 15:37:42 +0800 MODIFIED DELPHI TECHNIQUE IN ANALYSING CONTENTS OF GREEN SKILLS MODULE FOR DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY SUBJECT <p><em>The Green Skills Module (GS) is a teaching module of the Design and Technology (DT) subjects developed to introduce green skills and foster a positive attitude towards the environment. This article is intended to obtain the consensus of a panel of experts on the content analysis of the GS module. Modified Delphi Technique was used to analyse the contents of the GS Modules. Nine experts in the curriculum, Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET), Environmental Education as well as DT excellent teachers were selected through the method of purposive sampling. The data were collected using a semi-structural interview method for the first round and questionnaires for the second round. Based on the findings, two elements, namely knowledge and practice of green skills included in the GS module, are analysed using IBM SPSS version 21 to get the value of ‘Inter Quartile Range’ (IQR) and the Wilcoxon Test. The findings show that all the items for practice have been agreed upon by the experts while two items of knowledge have been rejected. This study indicates that the application of Modified Delphi Technique can be a new alternative method in analysing programme content in the development of a module.</em></p> Amarumi Alwi, Arasinah Kamis, Lazaro Moreno Herrera, Pedro Luis Yturria Motenegro, Irdayanti Mat Nashir, Che Ghani Che Kob, Tee Tze Kiong Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 26 Sep 2019 11:16:38 +0800 THE EFFECT OF RUBRIC ON RATER’S SEVERITY AND BIAS IN TVET LABORATORY PRACTICE ASSESSMENT: ANALYSIS USING MANY-FACET RASCH MEASUREMENT <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;">Performance assessments such as laboratory practice in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) are difficult to measure because they are subjective in their characteristics, which can cause bias. The use of a rubric scoring scale is suitable for measuring students’ practical competency as it could translate the qualitative criteria into quantitative forms on a grading scale. The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of rater severity for the performance of component installation of an electronic circuit project using Many-Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM). Nine raters have examined the competency performance of 68 students using a four-point rating scale rubric consisting of 16 items. This study was conducted at three vocational colleges. The results showed that all raters measured with different severities but very high consistency. The effect of rater severity did not exist at the group level but exhibited at the individual level. It can also be examined that all raters were biased on the item and also towards students, either by being severe or lenient. Thus, the rubric cannot eliminate the effect of bias during the assessment. However, it can help raters to be consistent so that they have the same understanding when translating the rubric. These findings have implications for the psychometric quality of the electronic circuit project performance assessment. </span></p> Azmanirah Ab Rahman, Nurfirdawati Muhamad Hanafi, Yusmarwati Yusof, Marina Ibrahim Mukhtar, Anizam Mohamed Yusof, Halizah Awang Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Mon, 04 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0800 PULL AND PUSH FACTORS OF STUDENTS' ENROLMENT IN THE TVET PROGRAMME AT COMMUNITY COLLEGE IN MALAYSIA <p>Malaysia aims to achieve a high-income economy by 2020. Hence, a highly skilled workforce is essential to achieving this goal through enhancement of its TVET graduates. This study is aimed at identifying the pull and push factors affecting student enrolment in the TVET programme at community colleges in Malaysia. This study employed a questionnaire to collect data. A total of 377 students from 11 community colleges in peninsular Malaysia were randomly selected as study sample. In this study, the mean score was used to determine the tendency of factors that influence student enrolment, while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to measure the difference in the mean score of the main factor. The findings show that all push and pull factors significantly influence student enrolment in TVET institutions. The study highlighted career prospect as the main pull factor, while the main push factors comprise students’ interest. The findings also show that there is a significant difference in the mean score of these two factors based on ethnicity. Therefore, students’ interest and awareness about the prospect of the TVET programme should be nurtured, especially among non-Bumiputeras, by the relevant parties such as government, teachers, parents, and the community so as to enhance students’ participation in the TVET programme.</p> Shahrun Nizam Bin Abdul Aziz, Normala binti Zulkifli, Irdayanti binti Mat Nashir, Noor Al-Huda binti Abdul Karim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 26 Sep 2019 11:38:33 +0800 IMPACTS OF LOWER AND UPPER SECONDARY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ON ECONOMIC GROWTH <p>The recent global financial crisis has called for improvement on the intensity of economic challenges such as skill shortage to strengthen global economies. Vocational education and training (VET) is one of the education systems that is important for improving workers’ and firms’ efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. In view of the contribution of VET in addressing labour market imbalances, it is crucial to understand that impacts of the VET on economic growth. Therefore, this study examines the impacts of lower and upper secondary VET on economic growth in 92 countries from year 2000 to 2016 by using panel regression model. The results indicate that upper secondary VET is significantly and positively influence economic growth but lower secondary VET does not affect economic growth. The study further examines the impacts of lower and upper secondary VET on the economic output indicator below and above median groups, respectively. It indicates that the effect of upper secondary VET on economic growth is stronger in the economic output indicator below median group compared to whole sample.&nbsp; The implications from this study are that upper secondary VET does matter for economic growth and it is more important to the countries below median group. Therefore, policymakers need to emphasize on upper secondary VET to enhance the contribution of national investment in VET to improve economic growth.</p> Hui Shan Lee, Wai Mun Har, Lee Sin Yee Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 01 Mar 2020 11:19:04 +0800 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNSHIP AS A COURSEWORK IN TEACHING AND LEARNING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION <p>Internship is one of the common practices of higher education institutions in Malaysia for enhancing the learning experience and technical skills among their students. Students who follow the internship programme are found not only to be able to develop their professional attributes but also have the opportunity to acquire professional networks and career paths. Besides being a conventional approach that links students with real-world employment experience for a programme, internship can also be implemented for a specific course within a programme. The article discusses the implementation of an internship programme as a pedagogical approach in providing experiential learning for a specific course, i.e., Foundation and Concrete Work. This study involved 51 second-year students who were pursuing a degree in vocational education at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Analysis on the impact of the internship experience indicates that the internship programme is an effective pedagogical approach for experiential learning for foundation and concrete work course.</p> Nor Fadila Amin, Adibah Abdul Latif, Mahyuddin Arsat, Nornazira Suhairom, Nurul Farhana Jumaat, Mohd. Erfy Ismail Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 19 Jan 2020 15:32:22 +0800 AUTHENTIC TEACHING AND LEARNING IN MALAYSIAN NATIONAL DUAL TRAINING SYSTEM (NDTS) APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM <p>Authentic teaching and learning is a strategy that draws upon the apprentices’ talents and experience within real-world settings, which provides them opportunities to exhibit and utilize their fundamental knowledge and skills. To optimize this strategy, skills trainers need to ingrain the apprentices with confidence and polished skills by synthesizing their personal qualities, in addition to their professional practices. This study expected to assess the acknowledgment of authentic teaching and learning of National Dual Training System (NDTS) program. A quantitative research design was used to conduct this research, involving 327 skills trainers in 3 different regions - Central, Northern and Southern. Statistical analysis was performed with the IBM Statistics version 22 software. Data were expressed as means and standard deviation. The Assessment Tool of Authentic Teaching and Learning introduced by Herrington &amp; Oliver, 2000 was utilized as the instrument. The findings illustrate that a majority of the skills trainers provided feedbacks towards the acknowledgment of authentic teaching and learning at a moderate level. Nine authentic learning components were discussed: Provide authentic context that mirrors the way the information will be utilized as a part of real-life; Provide authentic exercises; Provide access to industrial experts, and the displaying of procedures; Provide numerous roles and points of view; Support shared development of learning; Promote reflection; Promote articulation; Provide coaching and scaffolding and; and Provide authentic assessment of learning inside the undertakings. Thus, this study inferred that integrating authentic teaching and learning of National Dual Training System (NDTS) program provides a further enhancement apprentice learning outcome. &nbsp;</p> Norhayati Yahaya, Mohamad Sattar Rasul, Ruhizan Mohamad Yasin, Mohamad Sulaiman, Suimi Abd Majid Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 06 Feb 2020 11:40:18 +0800 ASSESSING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT-BASED LEARNING (PJBL) IN THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AT A MALAYSIAN POLYTECHNIC <p>Purpose - The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of Project-Based Learning (PjBL) at a polytechnic in Malaysia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Methodology – The research design used in this study was program evaluation. Program evaluation is systematic method to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of a program.&nbsp; A CIPP model was selected because it is a holistic and appropriate model for program evaluation.&nbsp; In terms of sampling, 43 supervisors and 118 students were selected randomly.&nbsp; The main instrument used in this study was a set of questionnaires validated in a pilot study.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Findings - Key finding shows that most supervisors and students believe that Project-Based Learning is suitable for the senior project. They also believe that the supervisors possesed adequate technical knowledge and have implemented their supervisory duties effectively. However, the students perceivethat the content of the Project-Based module was hard to follow and the students lack of creativity.&nbsp; The facilities in the polytechnic are also not optimal for the final project.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Significance - Based on the empirical data, this study contributes a new framework for Project-Based Learning.</p> Ramlee Mustapha, Sadrina, Irdayanti Mat Nashir, Mohamed Nor Azhari bin Azman, Khairul Anuar Hasnan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 26 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0800 THE POTENTIAL OF USING AUGMENTED REALITY (AR) TECHNOLOGY AS LEARNING MATERIAL IN TVET <p>In the field of education today, people can choose from a variety of ways and methods to acquire specific&nbsp;information&nbsp;and&nbsp;skills; here are some good examples: classroom lectures with textbooks, computers, hand-held devices, and other electronics appliances such as tablets and smartphones. In&nbsp;a rapidly&nbsp;changing society, there&nbsp;are countless sources of knowledge and a great&nbsp;deal&nbsp;of&nbsp;available&nbsp;information;&nbsp;hence, adopting&nbsp;an appropriate method and&nbsp;applying relevant&nbsp;information&nbsp;at&nbsp;the&nbsp;right&nbsp;time and place are important in both&nbsp;schools&nbsp;and&nbsp;business&nbsp;settings. The augmented reality (AR) technology is one of the most advanced developments in the education sector tailored for 21<sup>st</sup> Century learning. With so much to offer, it is worthwhile to investigate the potential of integrating AR into the teaching-learning processes. This study focuses on exploring the possibility of merging TVET learning materials with the AR technology; the survey was carried out among the lecturers to gauge their knowledge and perception of AR as well as the relationship between the two elements. This quantitative study includes randomly selected samples of 230 lecturers from Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). The respondents were given a questionnaire to answer. The SPSS version 22 software package was used to analyse the data collected. Overall, the mean score indicates that the lecturers' knowledge level for AR technology is high. The lecturers also have a positive perception of using AR as a tool to incorporate and present the learning materials. Finally, this study discovers that there is a positive relationship between the lecturers’ information about AR and their perception of using AR as a vehicle to deliver the learning materials. AR is expected to achieve widespread adoption in schools, universities and colleges,&nbsp; TVET and other higher learning institutions. Therefore, this study may be useful to the developers and providers of augmented reality solutions, end users of these solutions, teachers and students, and the experimenting digital communities.&nbsp;</p> Fazlinda Ab Halim, Wan Hanim Nadrah Wan Muda, Normah Zakaria, Nur Hanifah Binti A. Samad Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 07 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0800 DEVELOPMENT OF THE MALAYSIAN SKILLS CERTIFICATION FOR LECTURERS IN TERTIARY TVET INSTITUTIONS <p>Competency framework is a tool that sets out and defines a list of competencies that is required for a profession. It is a framework that a profession needs to perform their job effectively. This paper discusses a competency framework developed for technical lecturers under the Malaysian Skills Certification (Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia - SKM). TVET lecturers are tertiary level educators who teach practice and application oriented (PAO) based programmes at technical universities. The competency framework was developed using DESCUM (Develop a Standard Curriculum) method. The framework was published as an occupational standard under the National Occupational Skill Standard (NOSS) for TVET Implementation and Development. Nine competency units identified to be critical and important for a TVET lecturer to have are described in this paper. It comprises eight core competency units and one elective competency unit with thirty-four work activities. The work activities cover the roles and responsibilities of a lecturer, namely teaching, research and publication as well as consultation services. It is hoped that the competency framework for TVET lecturers will be a platform to assure the quality of TVET education at tertiary level and improve the Malaysian national higher education and economic landscape in the long run.</p> Aliza Che Amran, Gede Pramudya Ananta, Mohd Ariff bin Mat Hanafiah, Adlan Ali, Che Ku Nuraini Che Ku Mohd Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 26 May 2019 00:00:00 +0800 COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MALAYSIA AND INDONESIA: DIFFERENCES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS (THEORY-BASED) USED BY ENGINEERING TVET TEACHERS <p>This study was conducted to generate empirical evidence of the differences of teaching and learning methods used by engineering TVET teachers of Malaysia and Indonesia. This study applied quantitative method that involved data collection through the newly developed instrument of teaching and learning strategies. A survey technique was used as the research design in which a total of 183 teachers from Malaysia-Indonesia vocational institutions were involved in this research. The results have shown that there were similarities and differences of the method used by the teachers. There are several teaching and learning methods used by Malaysian and Indonesian respectively. Meanwhile, there is one similar method used by both countries which is practicing. In conclusion, Vocational Pedagogy plays a crucial role in this context, and this is why the teaching and learning is very important in educating young Malaysian and Indonesian to become successful technical and vocational trainers, instructors and teachers.</p> Marina Ibrahim Mukhtar, Jailani Md Yunos, Fahmi Rizal, Maizam Alias, Lee Ming Foong, Tee Tze Kiong, Siti Nur Kamariah Rubani, Hashima Hamid, faizal amin nur Yunus, Junita Sulaiman, Sri Sumarwati Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 19 Jan 2020 15:36:34 +0800 DESIGNING INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP MODEL TO IMPROVE THE SKILLS OF PROSPECTIVE VOCATIONAL TEACHERS <p>Prospective vocational teachers must have technical expertise in their fields. However, efforts to achieve the competencies of prospective vocational teachers have always lagged behind industries. This is due to the difficulty of teacher training institutions in providing facilities that meets industry standards. Partnership with industry in teacher training is thus, a solution to improve the competency of prospective vocational teachers, both in knowledge, skills and corporate culture. The current industrial attachment practice lacks a mutually beneficial model partnership model. The purpose of this study is to develop a new institution-industry partnership model. The three stage model development methodology was used to guide the model development process. Model development stage was based on findings from field study and literature review. The model validation stage was conducted via focus group discussion with industry players and institutions, and the model implementation stage was conducted with nine automotive authorized dealers in Yogyakarta. At the end, learning four-element internship model was established which includes <em>organizing internship programme, conducting internship, mentoring, and monitoring-evaluation </em>elements. Evaluation of the model indicates that implementation of the model promoting vocational teachers competences via mutually beneficial partnership programme.</p> Gunadi, Maizam Alias, Herminarto Sofyan, Mochamad Bruri Triyono Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Tue, 29 Oct 2019 14:59:08 +0800 ASSESSMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY USE COMPETENCE FOR TEACHERS: IDENTIFYING AND APPLYING THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY COMPETENCE FRAMEWORK IN ONLINE TEACHING <p>This paper proposes a theoretical framework as a foundation for building information technology competence framework and the requirements for using information technology competence of teachers in online teaching at training institutions. The parameters in this paper survey was conducted on sample space (n = 342) and 42 expert opinions to identify information technology competence framework with criteria and skill sets necessaries to successfully organize online teaching. This paper discusses on teaching developing information technology competence to change minds and develop teachers' competency to meet the online teaching trend of the digitalization today. So, building information technology competence framework in online teaching has many meanings in training process contribute to improving the learning capacity of students.</p> Thanh Phan Chi, Thanh Ngo Tu, Tien Phan Minh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Mon, 03 Feb 2020 14:29:53 +0800 TECHNICAL COMPETENCY AMONG VOCATIONAL TEACHERS IN MALAYSIAN PUBLIC SKILLS TRAINING INSTITUTIONS: MEASUREMENT MODEL VALIDATION USING PLS-SEM <p>It is important for vocational teachers in Malaysian Public Skills Training Institutions (MPSTI) based on the National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) modules to be technically competence. This study aimed to validate the measurement model for technical competency (knowledge and skills) consisting of eight constructs: material and application; work planning; handling, maintenance, and inventory of machines and hand tools; handling students at the workshop; practical instructional strategies; practical assessment; theoretical instructional strategies; specific knowledge; and general knowledge. This study is a quantitative research collected data through simple random sampling of vocational teachers from several technical programmes. A total of 1,186 respondents from 31 public skills training institutions were involved in this study. Measurement assessments were used to conduct a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis with SmartPLS 3.0 software to assess and validate the eight constructs of technical competency using a reflective model. The results revealed that 36 items on the eight constructs of technical competency had fulfilled the criteria for the validity assessment of the reflective measurement model through convergent validity and discriminant validity. For convergent validity, the value of loadings exceeded 0.708, the AVE values exceeded 0.5, and the CR values were between 0.7 to 0.9 (satisfactory). The discriminant validity of the model was assessed, and fulfilled the criteria of Fornell and Larcker (square root of AVE is larger than the correlations for all reflective constructs) by comparing the cross-loadings between the constructs, and using the HTMT0.9 technique. The finding of this study contributes to the knowledge on technical competency for vocational teachers in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programme. A proposed model, and newly developed technical competency items were employed in this study.</p> <p><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span></span></span></p> Khuzainey Ismail, Zulkifli Mohd Nopiah , Sattar Rasul Mohamad, Chau Leong Pang Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 06 Feb 2020 11:13:39 +0800 DEVELOPING INSTRUMENTS FOR EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS MEASUREMENT FOR TRAINEE TEACHERS IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FIELD <p><em>The purpose of this research is to identify the key elements of an employability skill which is important and should be mastered by trainee teachers in the field of technical and vocational education as well as to produce instruments measuring their employability skills. These instruments can also be used to identify the extent to which lecturers integrate the skills employability that is important in the student.</em><em> Modified Delphi Techniques and &nbsp;Rasch model approach was used to examine the reliability, validity and suitability of individual items. The final instrument&nbsp; of employability skills measurement among trainees in technical and vocational education field has been verified which encompasses nine key elements of employability skills consists communication skills , critical and creative thinking, information management, teamwork and collaboration, self-management, professional ethics and morals, leadership, entrepreneurship and social skills and representing 81 skills items.</em> <em>Verily, all these elements of employability skills need to be mastered by graduates in order to produce highly qualified and competitive professionals teachers.</em></p> Zaliza Binti Hanapi; Suriani Mohamed, Tang Jing Rui, Ridzwan Che Rus, Nurul Nazirah Mohd Imam Ma'arof, Shazielan Shariff Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 26 Sep 2019 11:36:54 +0800 ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING PRACTICE COMPETENCY AMONG IN-SERVICE TEACHER DEGREE PROGRAM (PPG) IN UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA <p><em>The best teacher preparation programs emphasise subject matter mastery and provide many opportunities for preservice teachers to spend time in real classrooms under the supervision of an experienced mentor. Thus, teaching practice plays utmost important component of teacher training in order to produce a high quality of future teacher due to the lacking of opportunity or comfort level to work on their pedagogy knowledge while managing their first class. But this condition is slightly different for in-service teacher with diploma and upgrade to degree through the in-service teacher degree programme (PPG) path. PPG is conducted in 4 years using distance learning mode. In-service teachers will attend the courses during weekend and only five times face-to-face meeting with the lecturers. PPG aims to improve the quality of teaching and school management by increasing the teachers’ level of educational qualifications. However, issues were highlighted where teaching competency or performance among in-service teachers are varied during teaching practice observation. Due to their part-time mode of learning, there are concerns whether their performance is at par with their full time peers. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the assessment of teaching practice competency among the PPG students. This study was applied the Documentation analyses as the research design by using the Teaching Assessment Form of Faculty of Technical &amp; Vocational Education, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Descriptive statistic using mean and standard deviation were used to analyses the collected data. The result showed that the competency of in-service teachers in teaching practicum in descending order is Personality&gt;Portfolio&gt; Implementation of Teaching&gt; Lesson Planning&gt; Implementation off Innovation&gt; Justification of Innovation&gt;Reflection. Results also showed that in-service teachers are</em><em>&nbsp;good in affective (M=4.33, SD=0.48), follow by psychomotor (M=4.12, SD=0.47) and cognitive (M=3.99, SD=0.56). In conclusion, in-service teachers need training for innovation in teaching and emphasise in cognitive taxonomy.&nbsp;</em></p> Ming Foong Lee, Johnson Soon Chong Lim, & Chee Sern Lai Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 11 Nov 2018 07:06:27 +0800 PRACTICAL TEACHING METHODS FOR ELECTRONIC IN VOCATIONAL COLLEGES USED BY TEACHERS <p>There are many challenges faced by teachers to ensure that every student is able to master the knowledge which is in line with the industry. Hence, the practical teaching approach that is used by teachers needs to be in line with the syllabus that is being constructed. Teachers are seen to be important characters in order to ensure that each student can master the contents of the lessons in the classroom well. The objective of this study is to investigate the practical methods of teaching electronic subject at Vocational Colleges which is often used by teachers in conducting the practical workshop. Quantitative studies were employed using questionnaires and the respondents of this research were 135 electronic teachers in 58 Vocational Colleges which offer Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technology courses.&nbsp; Descriptive analysis was used in this study and the data such as mean, standard deviation and ranking were analysed. The results showed that the Electronics teachers used several methods in delivering the electronic practical subjects which are in line with the industry nowadays. Based on this study, teachers used several practical teaching methods in class in order to ensure that every student will understand and they can use it when they become professional workers in specific electronics industry.</p> Ahmad Nabil Md Nasir, Adnan Ahmad, Amirmudin Udin, Nur Husna Abd Wahid, Dayana Farzeeha Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 13 Feb 2020 12:37:00 +0800 DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY TEACHER IN TVET: A VIEW ON THINKING STYLE AND INVENTIVE PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILL <p><em>Teachers play an important role to help student in solving problem in school and consequently preparing for their future career. Teachers can be the most important feature to expose thinking style in class. This is the implication of Technical and Vocational Education and Training programme which requires the students to be able to think creatively and critically in problem-solving. As inventive problem solving is known to be creative assessment methods for innovation, it is needed to guide Design and Technology teachers to expose the student new technique of solving a problem. This study attempts to investigate teachers’ perception of their thinking style and inventive problem-solving skill. The importance of thinking styles in inventive problem-solving skill and the factors contributing to the achievement to inventive problem solving are also discussed. Data were collected from 367 Design and Technology teachers across Malaysia. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. This study confirmed that teachers know the role of thinking style in solving a problem. They also admit that inventive problem-solving skill is important but half of them still having problem to master the skills. Problem identification is claimed to be a vital process in solving a problem but yet, majority of them still facing problem in finding the root cause. As a counter-measures on this miss-alignment, modules are needed by teachers to help them integrating their thinking styles into teaching and learning in class. Module also acts as teaching aids for teachers in guiding them solving inventive problems.</em></p> Tee Tze Kiong, Shanty Saien, Fahmi Rizal, Sukardi, Risfendra, Mei Heong Yee, Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad, Widad Othman, Mohamed Nor Azhari Azman, Nurulwahida Azid Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Wed, 11 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0800 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD USING NIESVE SYSTEM FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING STUDENTS <p>The article describes possibilities of increasing the effectiveness of teaching technical subjects using an interactive whiteboard. The basic research method is a pedagogical experiment by which we compare the effectiveness of teaching in the experimental and control group. In the experimental group was used experimental teaching with the support of an interactive whiteboard (on the platform of targeted use of the virtual way of visualising the course of processes and phenomena using an interactive whiteboard overlapping the natural possibilities of other ways of visualising these processes and phenomena). The control group was teaching traditionally taught without an interactive whiteboard. Research results (based on test results) have shown that the experimental teaching system we have used during this research is more effective than the traditional teaching system. By learning with an interactive whiteboard, we found that it was easier for students to acquire new knowledge. Students were able to use the acquired knowledge to solve practical tasks.</p> Lubomir Zacok, Milan Bernat, Jan Pavlovkin, Jaroslav Dzmura, Renata Bernatova Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 10 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0800 EMPLOYABILITY SKILL EVALUATION AMONG VOCATIONAL EDUCATION STUDENTS IN INDIA <p>The changing nature of work and employment is providing individuals for more flexible multi-skilling and learning opportunities. Imparting skill-based industry-oriented teaching can bridge the skill gaps and enhance employment opportunities for students. In this context, Government of India has introduced numerous programs to provide a fillip to technical vocational education and training.&nbsp; The current paper is aimed at understanding the role of vocational education and the change it brings to skill development and employability of the students.&nbsp; A combination of both qualitative and quantitative research methods was deployed for the study.&nbsp; In the quantitative design a multi-stage sampling process comprising of both probabilistic and non-probabilistic methods was employed.&nbsp; A sample of 586 students pursuing retail vocational education was identified and administered with the questionnaire.&nbsp; The statistical analysis presented the socio-economic profiles.&nbsp; Further, five factors for skill development and one factor for employability skill were identified through exploratory factor analysis.&nbsp; The factors identified for skill development include Initiative and Enterprise Skills (IES), Workplace Skills (WS), Professional Practice and Standards (PPS), Inter Personal Skills (IPS) and Integration Theory and Practice (ITP).&nbsp; Confirmatory and regression models involving all the factors were tested and their significance was analyzed.&nbsp; The study revealed that there is a positive impact of skill development on employability.&nbsp; It is suggested that focus on imparting vocational education for skill development can be a panacea for increased employability.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Pratiksha Tiwari, Nittala Malati Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Wed, 22 Jan 2020 11:26:15 +0800 UNDERSTANDING ARCHIMEDES LAW: WHAT THE BEST TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT <p>The purpose of this study was to demonstrate strategies in teaching the Archimedes law in the concept of floating, hovering, and sinking using egg as a model to students with hearing impairment (SHI). This study used a single-subject design with pre-test and post-test. The subjects of this study were three students with SHI at the Bandung Vocational School, Indonesia. Teaching was delivered using several methods, in which we used and compared “conventional teaching method” and “combination of conventional method and experimental demonstration”. The conventional method was done by giving lectures, question and answer, and assignments. The experimental demonstration was carried out by doing experiment and observing the eggs that were sinking, hovering, and floating. The results showed that the conventional teaching method was ineffective. Students with SHI found it difficult to understand an abstract concept because they have problems in auditory perception. However, when combining experimental demonstration supported with media, the difficult subjects could be taught to students with SHI. The reason for achieving successful teaching was because the experimental demonstration method improved students’ focus, helping students with SHI to easily understand the subject matter. This study also gives idea that the teacher must choose visual learning methods and media to make them as attractive as possible. Indeed, understanding the Archimedes law is important for students to understand advanced subjects related to the Archimedes law in vocational school.</p> Asep Nandiyanto, Deden Saepul Hidayat, Cece Rahmat, Rina Maryanti Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Mon, 03 Feb 2020 14:26:55 +0800 VISUALIZATION SKILLS AMONG ENGINEERING STUDENTS USING PROBLEM BASED LEARNING FOGARTY MODEL <p><em>Engineering Drawing</em><em> subject’s offered to all students who are enrolled in the civil engineering, electrical engineering or mechanical engineering. These subjects develop skills in geometry drawing more professional. For the concept in Engineering Drawing, students need to have good visualization skills. Visualization is needed to help students get a start before translating into a drawing. </em><em>To train these skills, a Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach will be implemented. The problem solving process repeatedly attempts to help the student correctly and accurately interpret the drawings of the engineering drawing. The process of learning using PBL method are specifically follow PBL Fogarty Model. This study examined readiness of visualization skills among engineering students through PBL Fogarty Model approach. A total of 68 students of engineering from institutions in Malaysia are involved in this study. The instruments used are Space Ability Test adapted from Bennett, Seashore and Wesman (1972). The findings show that students have a good level of visualization skills. As a result, the more individual a person achieves a good visual cognitive level, the easier it is to master the knowledge, ideas and approaches of the new learning method.</em></p> Arihasnida Ariffin, Norhasyimah Hamzah, Mohd Erfy Ismail, Mohd Ali Samsudin, Ahmad Nurulazam Md. Zain Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Wed, 23 Oct 2019 08:27:58 +0800 MATHEMATICAL THINKING STYLES AMONG ENGINEERING STUDENTS: PERCEPTIONS VERSUS ASSESSMENT TEST <p>Algebra is regarded as one of the primary learning domains as it represents the fundamental entry knowledge to higher forms of learning in &nbsp;mathematics, science, technology and engineering. The acquisition of Algebraic knowledge depends greatly on learners’ Mathematical Thinking Style (MTS). Therefore,&nbsp; this study&nbsp; aimed &nbsp;to investigate the &nbsp;university students’ MTS &nbsp;through the algebraic problem-solving topic.&nbsp; In general, the MTS was composed of analytical, visual, and integrated thinking styles. In this research,&nbsp; mixed method research design was adopted in which &nbsp;questionnaire&nbsp; and assessment test were used for data collection. A total of 248&nbsp; engineering students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia were involved in the data collection process. Descriptive statistics&nbsp; was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from the questionnaire, whereas the written answers from the assessment test were analysed using &nbsp;document analysis technique. &nbsp;The findings indicated that majority of the participating students perceived that they commonly practiced&nbsp; the Analytical Thinking Style in learning Algebra. However, analysis on the students’ problem solving steps in the assessment test revealed that the students were actually applying Visual Thinking Style in Algebraic problem solving tasks instead of Analytical Thinking Style. This study revealed that there was a difference&nbsp; between students’ perception and the analysis outcomes from the assessment test which reflected the actual MTS of the students. This difference reflects the fact that how an individual perceives his behaviour might not be consistent with his actual behaviour. In conclusion, instructors should know the actual MTS of the students instead of finding out students’ perception on their thinking style. This will help instructors design more relevant learning activities that beneficial to students.&nbsp;</p> Wan Hanim Nadrah, Fazlinda Ab Halim, Chee sern Lai, Syed Shahrul Zarizi Syed Abdullah Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Mon, 01 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0800 THE MOTIVATION LEVEL TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF GOOGLE APPS AMONG PART-TIME STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY <p>The rapid development of technology nowadays has changed today’s education system, especially in facilitating teaching and learning, and increasing students’ motivation. The development in the area of applications such as google apps have positively impacted teaching fields as a medium to disseminate information and instructional strategies between a lecturer and students. However, students do not have a sense of motivation to learn a new learning environment that is based on technology. The aim of this study was to determine the level of students’ motivation towards google apps. This was a survey study using a set of questionnaire as the instrument. The data were analyzed using mean scores to determine the students’ level of motivation. These findings showed that the students’ motivation to use google apps were high accordingly in terms of Google Drive for attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction; Google Form for attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction; Google Spreadsheets for attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction, while Google PowerPoint for attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. The findings helped to determine the appropriate google apps as instructional strategies to be applied in teaching and learning that would be able to increase the students’ motivation to learn. In general, this study supports the use of google apps in assisting learning process that can increase part-time students’ motivation.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Mohd Hasril Amiruddin, Irwan Mahazir Ismail, Nizamuddin Razali, Mohd Erfy Ismail, Noriyani Doman, Noorazman Abd. Samad, Azwin Arif Abdul Rahim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0800 MULTIMEDIA COURSEWARE FOR INTERACTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING: STUDENTS’ NEEDS AND PERSPECTIVES <p><em>Education faces many new challenges in meeting the demands of teaching and learning for the 21st century. One of the new challenges is to integrate ICT (Information and communication technologies) in teaching and learning as a means of delivering alternative teaching. Multimedia technology, for example, has the potential to transform a traditional classroom into an unlimited imaginary world. This paper report on development and evaluation of a multimedia courseware for Design and Technology (RBT). An interactive CD was developed using the Adobe Flash CS6 software. Alpha and Beta testing have been carried out in the development process. 6 experts were assigned to evaluate the functionality of the interactive CD. In order to identify the usability of interactive CD, 103 respondents were involved in the survey by filling four-point Likert scaled questionnaire. The findings show that, the level of interactive CD usability is at a high level.&nbsp; Based on this study, there are positive effects that we can see based on the use of multimedia elements in the education system. The meaningful benefits of using multimedia elements for learning include the presentation of various learning styles. The presentation of information usually integrates multimedia elements such as text, graphics, audio and video.</em></p> Faizal Amin Nur Yunus, Noor Hafiza Md. Omar, Junita Sulaiman, Mohd Bekri Rahim, Jamil Abd Baser, Arasinah Kamis, Haryanti Mohd Affandi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0800 GENDER ANALYSIS OF WORK READINESS AMONG VOCATIONAL STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY <div> <p><em>There are number of skill levels mentioned in previous study that less emphasised on the major element required for semi-skilled workers. Therefore, this paper aimed to determine the level of skills readiness of Kluang vocational college’s students that apparently will work as semi-skilled worker in industry. This study was used quantitative research method through survey using questionnaires as the instrument to get the data and information for answering the research questions. A sample of 155 (85 Male and 70 female) students of final year diploma students from various technology courses were selected based on purposive sampling method to complete the questionnaire survey given. A questionnaire that consists of six constructs was developed and the administered to obtain information. Data was collected and analysed descriptively using SPSS (Statistical Package for The Social Sciences). During data analysis, descriptive measurement was conducted and Independent T-Test test was used to analyse the differences between female and male student toward in their work readiness. Besides, the validity was made to ensure the questionnaire can be used. Content validity, face validity and construct validity were used in this study to make sure the instrument's validity. Moreover, the pilot study was carried out to obtain the reliability of the questionnaire. Based on the analysis that has been made, Alpha Cronbach value was 0.95 categorized as a high level. Findings showed that there was a significant difference between male and female students on work readiness. The level of readiness among students as promising as referring to the high level of attitude, thinking skills, leaderships, teamwork, problem solving and communication skills. Furthermore, the students need to acquire at least foundation skills in their courses in order to be success in any job along the career pathway, students need to acquire specific occupational skills that allow them to differentiate themselves in a competitive job market.</em></p> </div> Mohd Erfy Ismail, Suhaizal Hashim, Anies Faziehan Zakaria, Arihasnida Ariffin, Mohd Hasril Amiruddin, Mohd Bekri Rahim, Nizamuddin Razali, Irwan Mahazir Ismail, Nadzrah Sa'adan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Technical Education and Training Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0800 PERSPECTIVE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN UNIVERSITIES AND INDUSTRIES IN DEVELOPING ENGINEERING STUDENTS WITH NON-TECHNICAL SKILLS <p>Non-technical skill is the main attribute for a fresh engineering graduate to be employed. Recently, there are many complaints from industries regarding their non-technical skills. Many studies revealed that these skills could be developed effectively through industrial training. This paper is presenting the differences in the perspectives between universities and industries in non-technical skills development among engineering students. A qualitative study has been done on the experts which were five industrial training coordinators from universities and five employers from the industry. The experts were chosen based on are selected based on specific qualities to obtain the most relevant data. The transcribed interview data were analysed by using thematic analysis. The result reveals that there are some of miscommunication between universities and industries. It seems that universities are not able to fulfil what industry wants because of some unavoidable conditions. As mentioned before that industrial training is a very good time for student to develop their nontechnical skills. Five components are discussed namely placement in the industry, training duration, assessment, type of training or task given and learning outcomes. There are some similarities and differences between universities and industries regarding factors that are affecting non-technical skills development during industrial training. Universities should minimize the gap to ensure the students can get the most valuable experience during their industrial trainings as that can be the best platform for students to learn and enhance their non-technical skills.</p> Aini Najwa Azmi, Yusri Kamin, Ahmad Nabil Md Nasir, Muhammad Khair Noordin Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Technical Education and Training Thu, 13 Feb 2020 12:39:54 +0800