Journal of Technical Education and Training <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align: justify;">The Journal of Technical Education and Training (JTET) is a peer reviewed journal that publishes twice a year&nbsp; (June and December) on articles concerning Technical &amp; Vocational Education and Training (TVET) practices in both the formal and informal sectors. We welcome article submissions from the local and international TVET researchers and practitioners. We strongly welcome research articles and will also consider critical reviews as well as technical reports that can further our understanding of TVET issues and concerns.</p> Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia en-US Journal of Technical Education and Training 2229-8932 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> VOCATIONAL PEDAGOGICAL DECISIONS OF MALAYSIAN AND INDONESIAN NON-ENGINEERING TVET TEACHERS <div> <p><em>A teacher’s pedagogical decisions determine the quality and effectiveness of the teaching and learning process while academic content (practical or theories), as well as teachers cultural background (as indicated by teacher's nationality), can influence teachers’ decision makings. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the dominant pedagogical decisions as practiced by non-engineering TVET teachers in two countries namely Malaysia and Indonesia. A survey was conducted on 312 Malaysian Vocational College (VC) and 200 Indonesian Vocational Senior Secondary School (VSSS) teachers.&nbsp; A questionnaire consisting of 33 items on pedagogical decisions was used to gather data on teacher’s pedagogical decisions. Descriptive analysis conducted on the data indicate that the findings indicate that there are similar in vocational pedagogical decisions used by Malaysian-Indonesian respondents based on "Role of Teacher", "Nature of Knowing", "Organization of Time", "Content of Curriculum", "Organization of Space", "Approach to Task" and "Visibility of Processes". In addition, this study found that there are differences in vocational pedagogical decisions used by Malaysian-Indonesian non-engineering TVET teachers based on "Attitude to Knowledge", "Proximity to Teacher" and "Role of Learner".</em></p> </div> Jailani Md Yunos Siti Nur Kamariah Rubani Maizam Alias Sri Sumarwati Faizal Amin Nur Yunus Hashima Hamid Fahmi Rizal Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 11 3 EXPLORING THE MASTERY LEVEL OF CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILL AMONG THE TECHNICAL UNDERGRADUATE <p><em>Statistics from the Department of Statistics showed that 76200 graduates in this country still failed to get a job. One of the main reasons of this phenomenon is the graduates are still unable to meet the demand of the current job market. The current job market is not only take seriously on knowledge and technical skills but also soft skills. Therefore, the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) listed seven soft skills that should be possessed by the graduates. Among the seven soft skills, critical thinking and problem solving is the one of the emphasized skill. In this skills, there are three main subskills must be mastery from a total number subskills of seven. Thus, a survey was conducted to identify the level of critical thinking and problem solving skills among the engineering undergraduate students. A total of 341 final year students of Bachelor's degree in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia were stratified randomly selected as respondents. Data was collected through an achievement test on critical thinking and problem solving skills. Mean, standard deviation, Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis Test were employed to analyze the gathered data. Results showed that the level of critical thinking and problem solving skills of students for the three main subskills (Ability to Identify and Analyse Problem in Complex or Ambiguous Situation and Develop Justification Evaluation; Ability to Improve and Develop&nbsp; Thinking Skill as Explain, Analyse and Discussion Evaluated; Ability to Generate&nbsp; the Ideas and Alternative Evaluation) were at a moderate level. As the conclusion, the MOHE, education institutions and students must work together in order to enhance the acquisition for critical thinking and problem solving skill of graduates through the modification of teaching strategies, strengthening academic programs and others intervention programme.</em></p> Ming Foong Lee Siti Nooridayu Mohd Sohod & Azmanirah Ab Rahman Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2018-11-11 2018-11-11 11 3 TEACHERS’ PEDAGOGICAL REASONING AND ACTION IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION <p><em>Model Pedagogical Reasoning and Action (MPRA) is the process of teaching in the aspects of understanding, transformation, evaluation and assessment, reflection of teaching and understanding of new knowledge and competency of teachers. The survey was conducted on teachers of technical and vocational teaching practices in identifying the teaching practices through the process proposed by MPRA. The objectives of the study were to identify the level of knowledge and competencies of teaching, the differences of practices according to different technical and vocational subject and also the relationship based on the teachers’ demographic such as teaching experiences, courses attended and skills’ certificate. The quantitative approach through a set of questionnaire distributed to relevant teachers. The respondents involved teachers of technical and vocational teachers from various fields. 160 teachers from eight areas of technical and vocational subjects involved as respondents by using convenience sampling techniques. The findings demonstrate a level of competency and knowledge of teachers are at a high level. There have been differences of practice teaching according to the field and significant relationship between competency and knowledge with teaching experience. As a result, any model of teaching or pedagogical approach, teachers are able to apply their knowledge and skills in teaching and working experience in industry also can contribute a broader interpretation of knowledge and teaching in effective strategies for technical and vocational education field.</em></p> Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad Yee Mei Heong Tee Tze Kiong Marina Ibrahim Mukhtar Adnan Ahmad Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-03-19 2019-03-19 11 3 PERCEPTION OF ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS ON FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SELECTION OF LOCATIONS FOR ACADEMIC TRIP AND SITE VISIT <p><em>One of the approaches in the architectural design studio pedagogy is an academic trip, in which it is always associated with a site visit. This approach is widely applied in architectural education around the world. However, there are challenges in executing this approach. Thus, this study aims to identify the students’ perceptions of the academic trip and site visit via factors that influence the trip location. A mixed-method approach was applied, where it involved 32 questionnaire surveys and 20 in-depth interviews. The final year Bachelor of Science in Architecture students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia were selected as respondents. The quantitative data from the survey had been analyzed using simple statistic such as percentage and frequency. However, the qualitative data gained from the in-depth interview was analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the students opine that the visit is beneficial for them. However, most of them also agree that the factors of travelling time, financial and knowledge exposure affect their choices for the location. The findings also demonstrate that the students still opt for farther academic trip and site visit location though they face financial issues. Hence, it is recommended that further action should be taken such as the provision of financial support to encourage the academic trip and site visit as the architectural design studio pedagogies. Farther location of the visit provides more exposure to the students. This helps to produce graduate architects that are more sensitive towards the diversity of culture, heritage and built environment.</em></p> Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff Nor Haslina Ja’afar Noraziah Mohammad Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-07-22 2019-07-22 11 3 EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATION OF LEARNING STRATEGIES AND HIGHER-ORDER THINKING SKILLS FOR GENERATING IDEAS AMONG TECHNICAL STUDENTS <p><em>Learning strategies and higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) play an important role in higher education learning. Every student as different preferences and strengths in learning strategies and HOTS, thus it can be a stimulus for developing new ways of learning. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the integration of learning strategies and HOTS in generating ideas via a self-instructional manual among technical students. This quantitative approach research used the modified quasi-experimental design with a treatment group (TG) and a control group (CG) comprising 81 students. The pre- and post-individual assignments and assessment analytic rubric were used as the research instruments. The pre- and post-assignments were used to test the effectiveness of the integration of learning strategies and HOTS in generating ideas before and after treatment was given to TG students. The assessment analytic rubric was used to evaluate the pre- and post-assignments based on five evaluation criteria (ideas, designs, functions, materials and dimensions). Each TG student received a self-instructional manual for the integration of Kolb’s learning strategies and Marzano’s HOTS as a treatment for one month, while the CG students had no treatment but conventional teaching. The gathered data were analysed using SPSS software. The findings show that there are statistically significant differences between TG and CG on the five evaluation criteria for the individual post-assignment result. There are also statistically significant differences in the five evaluation criteria between the individual pre- and post-assignments results. Overall, the approach of integrating learning strategies and HOTS by using a self-instructional manual for generating ideas is significantly effective.</em></p> Yee Mei Heong Kong Hie Ping Jailani Jailani MD Yunos Widad Widad Othman Tee Tee Tze Kiong Mimi Mohaffyza Mohamad Kok Kok Boon Ching Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 11 3 THINKING STYLE PATTERN AMONG DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY TEACHERS IN MALAYSIA <p><em>Critical and creative thinking skills are vital in new Malaysia curriculum starting 2011. These skills are advised to be integrated in all subjects in school. Hence, knowing the teachers thinking style can be an advantage as this can give the impression on how the students will be. This study was conducted to identify the tendency to which creative critical thinking style of Design and Technology (DT) teachers across Malaysia. A total of 367 teachers are involved and required to answer the instrument known as YPCreative-Critical Test which consist of 34 items. This instrument was develop using Google Form and been send out to the respondent through email, Facebook, WhatsApp, Telegram and Instagram application to ease the teachers to respond online. The data then analyzed using descriptive statistic and inferential statistics. The finding from this study showed that nearly half of the DT teachers having balance thinking style. Creative thinking style has 35.4% of the total while critical thinking style 19%. None of our teachers has superior thinking style. The independent t-test result shows there is no significant difference thinking styles among DT teachers in gender.</em></p> Saien Shanty Tee Tze Kiong Md Yunos Jailani Yee Mei Heong Mohamad Mimi Mohaffyza Othman Widad Azman Mohamed Nor Azhari Hanapi Zaliza Azid Nurulwahida Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2018-12-18 2018-12-18 11 3 CRITERIA FOR SUSTAINABLE CURRICULUM OF TVET TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN MALAYSIA <p><em>The purpose of a Teacher Education programme is to produce quality teachers, especially teachers that can perform the task of teaching effectively and deliver the purpose of the National Education Philosophy, consequently leading to a sustainable TVET Teacher Education programme. One aspect that contributes to the sustainability of a programme is the curriculum. The curriculum has to be able to react with the changes took place in the workplace especially for a developing country like Malaysia. Hence, this study was carried out to explore the criteria for the sustainable curriculum of TVET Teacher Education programmes in Malaysia. A qualitative research approach was used for this study, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experts. Utilising this approach allowed the researcher to focus on experts’ knowledge and experiences based on the issues explored. Data were analysed using thematic analysis with pencil and paper, while Microsoft Excel was used as a tool for data keeping. The study identified five main criteria for sustainability which includes i) specialization; ii) work-based design; iii) dynamic; iv) interactive teaching and learning, and v) international syllabus. It is expected that the outcome of this study will contribute towards the sustainability of TVET Teacher Education programmes in Malaysia thus improving the quality of TVET graduates to achieve the national goal of becoming a high-income nation.</em></p> Nor Hidayah Hamdan Jailani Md Yunos & Lai Chee Sern Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 11 3 TECHNICAL COMPETENCIES IN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY TOWARDS INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4.0 <p><em>In the contemporary digitalisation and robotics world, industries are facing what is known as the Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR4.0). The belief by most experts is that some professions will be replaced by emerging technologies. As such, the education sector is affected as only qualified, highly skilled and educated employees are required. IR4.0 technologies have created new jobs in meeting the needs of the existing market, as such more services and unique products will be introduced. Therefore, this study identifies the technical competency needed by industries towards future industrial revolution for TVET graduates. This study uses qualitative method and has implemented survey method of distributing a set of questionnaires to selected respondents. The study also employs the use of structured interview session with two TVET experts in order to support the findings. Purposive sampling was used to select the respondent, where the respondents comprised students and lecturers from Malaysian premier polytechnics, such as Ibrahim Sultan Polytechnic, Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Polytechnic and Ungku Omar Polytechnic. However, only 197 final year students and 89 lecturers from bachelor’s degree level from four programs (civil engineering department, electric and electronic engineering department and mechanical engineering department as well as the design and visual communication department) were chosen. Analysis of interview session from the experts indicated that three critical technical skill themes are needed for IR4.0: analysing, interpreting and documenting data; understanding and optimising process; and, executing, troubleshooting and maintaining of devices. Findings from the survey concluded that the respondents’ level of knowledge and skills to most of the technical competency is still at the average level and requires a lot of improvement. This implies that new technical knowledge should be embedded in the new curriculum on technology for their future knowledge, in order to fit with the need of changes in technology.</em></p> Asnidatul Adilah Ismail Razali Hassan Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 11 3 MALAYSIAN INDUSTRIAL COLLABORATIONS FOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN 4TH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION <div> <p><em>The fourth industrial revolution (4IR) is a new revolution with a combination of communication, IT data and physical system, also known as a cyber-physical system. The arrival of 4IR in Malaysian needs collaboration from industry player and institutions in developing the skills that merge in 4IR because through this collaboration the competency of the workforces can be increased. This study is conducted to identify the strategic plan that can use as a guideline by Department of Skills Development in collaboration with the industry and institutions for skills development in 4IR. A qualitative survey research design within a focus group was adopted in this study. The focus group discussion has been done involving members of the Department of Skills Development Malaysia, an academician from the different institutions in Malaysia and industrial players from a various industry in Malaysia.&nbsp; The findings show ten strategic plan that can be used as a guideline by the Department of Skills Development in order to develop a skill for 4IR which are designing assessment of industrial training with employers, strengthens industry involvement in curriculum development, identify industries that have the interest/needs of the institutions and create industry requirements for the institutions. Next, the education and training&nbsp; provider must be open and create platform&nbsp; to accept industry opinions, appoint suitable experts from 4IR industries for NOSS development, penetrate international standard (dual certification) and emphasis industry collaboration with training providers to employed workers. Moreover, industry and institutions have to collaborate to sharing resources (skills, knowledge, facilities and funding), reskilling and upskilling workers using train the trainer approach collaborate with industry expert and lastly is collaboration or partnership with industry.</em></p> </div> Nurul Eizzaty Sohimi Haryanti Mohd Affandi Mohd Sattar Rasul Ruhizan Mohd Yasin Norazah Nordin Sariyah Adam Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-03-19 2019-03-19 11 3 EXPLORATION OF SPIRITUAL ELEMENTS IN HOLISTIC-ENTREPRENEUR (HOLISTIC-E) AMONG TVET GRADUATE STUDENTS <div> <p><em>Entrepreneurship is seen as a potential career path for overcoming the problem of unemployment. However, this career has yet to get a second or even a last option among graduates in Malaysia. Government has introduced several initiatives to cultivate entrepreneurial spirit among students or graduates such as the first surge of the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2015-2025 (Higher Education) and Entrepreneurship Action Plan 2016-2020. Despite the magnitude of these efforts, little is known whether graduates today are entrepreneurial. Furthermore, based on current achievements, this is quite difficult to implement as the desire of graduates in entrepreneurship is not particularly encouraging, especially graduates in TVET courses. Compared to previous studies on student development that only examines the external element of the student affecting entrepreneurial desires, this study focuses on the internal elements of students holistically to increase student entrepreneurial desires and improve entrepreneurship as one of the preferred careers in Malaysia in meeting the challenges of the first shift of the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2015-2025; produce more graduate entrepreneurs.</em></p> </div> Nurul Haerani Mohamad Asri Selamat & Badaruddin Ibrahim Berhanuddin Mohd Salleh Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-03-19 2019-03-19 11 3 THE SOFT SKILL ELEMENTS IN AN ON-JOB TRAINING (OJT) (ORGANISATION) ASSESSMENT RUBRIC FOR CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS IN MALAYSIAN VOCATIONAL COLLEGES <p><em>During on-Job Training (OJT), students are assessed by using the OJT (Organisation) assessment rubric.&nbsp; However, soft skill elements in the current assessment rubric are quite general in assessing students according to the job scope for Diploma in Construction Technology. The items in the current assessment rubric are not specific to assess soft skills of site supervisors which are important in the construction industry.&nbsp; Therefore, this study aims to identify the soft skill elements for OJT (Organisation) assessment rubric for Construction Technology students.&nbsp; The research design for this study is a survey that was carried out quantitatively through questionnaires involving contractors of G4 to G7 as the population of this study and administered to 180 contractors by using simple random sampling.&nbsp; After document analysis and expert validation process, five items were selected to be the constructs of soft skills and 21 items were chosen to be the elements for soft skills.&nbsp; From the Rasch Model analysis which referred to the Infit and Outfit values, one item was discarded which was Item C05 because it showed out-of-range values for both the Mean Square Infit and Outfit as well as the Z Standard value for Infit and Outfit.&nbsp; This finding was validated by experts. As a result, only 20 elements were accepted to be elements of the OJT (Organisation) assessment rubric. However, according to the item polarity analysis, all 21 elements were accepted to be elements in the OJT (Organisation) assessment rubric.&nbsp; The data analysis also indicated that both item and person reliability were good. The five constructs identified from this study were communication skill, critical thinking and problem-solving skill, teamwork, ethics and professional moral and leadership skill.&nbsp; In conclusion, this study was able to identify specific soft skills for site supervisors which could help to solve the problem of the general assessment elements in the current OJT rubric. Students may use these elements as a reference for job scope during OJT. Therefore, it is suggested to conduct a study for determining the descriptors for the soft skill elements.</em></p> Nurhafizah Abdul Musid Haryanti Mohd Affandi & Nor Haslinda Abas Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2018-11-22 2018-11-22 11 3 COMPARING EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION STUDENTS OF THAILAND AND MALAYSIA: A CASE STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL WORK-INTEGRATED LEARNING <p><em>This study focused on a comparison of technical and vocational education (TVE) students' employability skills in Thailand, a newly industrialized country and ranked 61st out of 148 countries worldwide on the quality of graduates’ skillsets, and Malaysia, a top-ranked country in the group of upper-middle income countries in terms of graduates’ skillsets (6th). Thirty mentors were asked to assess 90 Thai and 83 Malaysian students who completed international work-integrated learning (WIL) programs in 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, using a questionnaire that addressed 16 main aspects of measuring employability skills. The findings indicated that most of the Malaysian students had better employability skills than Thai students and there were no significant differences in employability skills between male and female students in both countries.&nbsp; The regression model of quality of work indicated that ‘ability to learn and apply knowledge’, ‘judgment and decision making’, ‘discipline and adaptability to a formal organization’, ‘ethics and morality’ and ‘quantity of work’ had a positive effect on ‘quality of work’. This study suggested that, in order to effectively prepare students for professional work and careers in ever-changing workplaces, TVE institutions should carefully assess the quality of the WIL environment, especially international WIL. The reflection of mentors in the workplace provided useful information for TVE institutions to develop effective WIL program to boost students’ qualities and may give insight into how students are likely to receive sustainable employment development to building a more sustainable society through the skills and knowledge of their students.</em></p> Theerasak Sa-Nguanmanasak Buratin Khampirat Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-06-16 2019-06-16 11 3 SUPPORTING FUTURE CAREER OF AUTISTIC LEARNERS VIA TECHNOLOGY: DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF IBAKERY COURSEWARE <p><em>The evolution of education affects the style and approach of teaching and learning. Education 4.0 as the current evolution in education focuses on the students and the usage of technology. iBakery as a form of iBook is one of the technology implementations in education for Autistic students. iBakery is an Autistic user-friendly courseware which provides a set of instructions needed in baking activity. By concentrating on the interface, content presentation, and flow of the system, iBakery could help Autistic students to learn about bakery in a fun way. From the qualitative testing which has been conducted towards target users, results show positive feedbacks on iBakery from both teachers and Autistic students. It is believed that iBakery could help Autistic students to gain their baking skills which could be applied in their future life as a chance of independent living and career opportunity.</em></p> Faaizah Shahbodin Meylinda Maria Che Ku Nuraini Che Ku Mohd Nurul Amiera Jaafar Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-05-26 2019-05-26 11 3 IDENTIFYING THE EMPLOYMENT SKILLS AMONG MALAYSIAN VOCATIONAL STUDENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF GENDER DIFFERENCES <p><em>Employability and the creation of a knowledge-based economy have become fundamental concerns in many countries, including Malaysia. Realizing the need to achieve a high-income economy, the Malaysian Government through its Eleventh Malaysia Plan (2016-2020) is transforming Technical and Vocational Education Training (TVET) by enabling industry-led approach is crucial to produce skills human capital that meet the industry demand and support the migration of all economic sectors towards knowledge intensive activities, in line with the aspiration to become a high-income nation by 2020. Technical and Vocational Education can play a major role in providing future workforce with employability skills. Therefore, the research aims to examine the differences in competency perceived level by gender for vocational students majoring in hospitality. Questionnaires were distributed to 841 hospitality students in five regions in Malaysia. Descriptive statistic and independent sample T-Test were used to analyse the data. The findings show that there is no significant difference between male and female. The mean score of male is higher than mean score of female. Thus, the result provides evident that male is more competent in hospitality employability skills compared to female student in vocational colleges. The findings provide insights to curriculum developers and policy makers on the appropriate interventions that need to be taken to improve the employability skills of the graduates.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Irwan Mahazir Ismail Nor Aziah Ahmad Mohd Hasril Amiruddin Mohd Erfy Ismail Hairuddin Harun Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 11 3 PUBLIC-PRIVATE-CIVIL SOCIETY PARTNERSHIP: A GATEWAY TO ENSURING GOOD GOVERNANCE PRACTICES OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIAN FEDERAL UNIVERSITIES <p><em>There is an increasing evidence that education generally and vocational education particularly in Nigeria is facing serious challenge of financial resource mismanagement, which seem to be traceable to high level of corruption or corrupt practices exhibited by school administrators. This unpleasant situation has contributed to lack of effectiveness and efficiency, accountability, transparency, and integrity in the utilization of funds for execution of projects. However, the quest to achieve the main objectives of vocational education appears to be rather unrealistic. Therefore, the issue of mismanagement or lack of clarity in the utilization of funds for execution of projects have called for the coalition of all major stakeholders within and outside Nigeria so as to help bypass the corrupt governance of vocational education programme. This study aims at investigating the extent to which public-private-civil society partnership (PPCSP) can help in establishing good governance practices of vocational education programme in Federal Universities in South-South geopolitical region of Nigeria. Four research questions were raised and answered using the Mean and standard deviations descriptive statistics, and four corresponding null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the t-test statistic. A descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. The study population comprised of all the vocational education lecturers in South-South Nigerian Federal Universities. A 4-point scaled questionnaire was administered to 154 vocational education lecturers. The instrument was validated by 4 experts, and the reliability coefficient using Cronbach alpha was α=.90. The analysis of the data collected revealed that to a very high extent PPCSP can help in promoting good governance practices (e.g., effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, accountability, and integrity) in the utilization of funds for execution of projects by vocational education administrators. When the corresponding null hypotheses were tested, the study found no significant difference in the Mean responses of male and female vocational education lecturers as regards the extent to which PPCSP can help in promoting good governance practices in the utilization of funds for execution of projects. Based on these findings, there is the need for all the major stakeholders of vocational education within and outside Nigeria to collaborate in order to promote good governance practices in the utilization of funds for execution of projects by vocational education administrators.</em></p> James Edomwonyi Edokpolor James Edomwonyi Edokpolor Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 11 3 CHALLENGES AFFECTING TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: STAKEHOLDERS’ PERSPECTIVE <p><em>The paper focused on the challenges impacting Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) within Trinidad and Tobago (T&amp;T). The study highlighted issues plaguing TVET, with insights emanated from stakeholders within TVET institutions. The challenges that presented itself showed TVET in T&amp;T faces copious amount of problems. Stigma, Attrition, and Quality teaching were some of the key problems affecting TVET in T&amp;T. The researcher utilised a qualitative approach to gather data from stakeholders within the institutions. The data was put forward by way of a thematic analysis approach. Focus groups and interviews were used to extract many details that gave the study deep and rich insights on TVET and the challenges emanating at present. Two main themes emerged from the data: challenges and resources. These two areas were further broken down into sub themes. The study also showed that TVET institutions are incapable of treating with some of the issues they faced, and it requires intervention from the central government to address the macro problems that plagued TVET. The research focused on four TVET institutions that are tertiary level institutions of learning. Additionally, the study showed very persuasively that TVET is experiencing a number of significant challenges in T&amp;T. The issues that face the institutions are very complex and which they may not be able to address in a significant way. These challenges require intervention from the governmental level, these matters require the right and adequate leadership as a very important factor in moving TVET forward.</em></p> Abede Jawara Mack Daniel White Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-05-08 2019-05-08 11 3 JOB SATISFACTION SURVEY: A CONFIRMATORY FACTORIAL ANALYSIS BASED ON VOCATIONAL COLLEGES TEACHERS SAMPLE <p><em>This study was carried out to verify the measurement model of the construct of job satisfaction among technical teachers in Technical Vocational College Ministry of Education. A study involving 493 samples from 25 vocational colleges and comprising technical teachers in electrical and electronics engineering, civil engineering and mechanical engineering. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach with AMOS 20 software has been applied in this study. The original item was the adaptation of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) questionnaire developed by Spector (1997), there were 32 items, after exploratory factor analysis was carried out 32 original items had decreased to 22 items, sub construct was also changed from 8 sub constructs to 4 sub construct only. To ensure that the job satisfaction measurement model can be verified, three factors have been evaluated, unidimensional, validity and reliability. After 10 items were dropped out, the data were re-analysed and the findings showed that all 22 items in the measurement model had factor loading meet the required level, all AVE values also meet the required level. While fitness indexes for Absolute Fit, Incremental Fit and Parsimonious Fit all meet the requirements set for all CR values ≥ 0.6. Overall, it can be concluded that after the measurement model was modified by dropping 3 items with factor loading &lt;0.6 then the model was fit to be used for structural model analysis process.</em></p> Mohamad Zaid Mustafa Yahya Buntat Rosnee Ahad Abdul Rasid Abdul Razzaq Norzella Bokhari Copyright (c) Journal of Technical Education and Training 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 11 3